Sarts and Nomads

One of the particular cultural distinctions of Central Asia is between sarts, or settled people, and nomads.
In ancient Turkestan, the word "Sart" referred to anyone living a settled lifestyle, no matter their ethnic origin, and particularly to the people of the various city-states scattered through the region.  The sarts themselves distinguished between Turkic sarts and Indo-Iranian Tajiks, but to the nomads, a Sart was a Sart.
The Tajiks are a little different.  "Tajik" is an Indo-Iranian word meaning "Non-Turk".  In the early days of Turkestani independence, the word "tajik" was used to refer to any non-Turkic people, including Russians, Tocharians and Han Chinese).  The Tajik people, however, felt strongly enough about keeping the word "Tajik" to refer to themselves that the term was reapplied to the Tajik people proper.
In modern Turkestan, the sart/nomad terminology has undergone a slight shift in meaning, and now refers to the traditional lifestyle of one's ethnic group, regardless of your personal way of life.

Sart peoples

Sart peoples of Turkestan include the Üzbeks, Qaraqalpaqs and the Uygur minority of eastern Turkestan.

Nomadic peoples

Nomadic peoples include the Qazaqs, the Kırğız and the Turcomans.

Non-Turkic peoples

Non-Turkic peoples of Turkestan include the Tajiks and several minority groups including Russians, Han Chinese, Persians and Tocharians.